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Steiner abandoned the attempt after only a few months, declaring that it was impossible to teach her anything about philosophy. A laughing stock or painful embarrassment. [193] Still, Nietzsche saw his philosophy as a counter-movement to nihilism through appreciation of art: Art as the single superior counterforce against all will to negation of life, art as the anti-Christian, anti-Buddhist, anti-Nihilist par excellence. Nietzsche would ultimately argue the impossibility of an evolutionary explanation of the human aesthetic sense. Paradoxes and Lessons of a Hard Case", "Zarathustra's Secret. [244], In his Egotism in German Philosophy, Santayana claimed that Nietzsche's whole philosophy was a reaction to Schopenhauer. [275][276][277] A similar notion was espoused by W. H. Auden who wrote of Nietzsche in his New Year Letter (released in 1941 in The Double Man): "O masterly debunker of our liberal fallacies ... all your life you stormed, like your English forerunner Blake. He was only 24 years old and had neither completed his doctorate nor received a teaching certificate ("habilitation"). The Russian painter Lena Hades created the oil painting cycle Also Sprach Zarathustra dedicated to the book Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Pity stands opposed to the tonic emotions which heighten our vitality: it has a depressing effect. "Nietzsche's Aesthetic Solution to the Problem of Epigonism in the Nineteenth Century." [332] Carl Jung was also influenced by Nietzsche. And is now known as one of the most important thinkers of modern times. [54], While at Schulpforta, Nietzsche pursued subjects that were considered unbecoming. [65][66] Consequently, he turned his attention to his studies again, completing them in 1868. Krell, David Farrell, and Donald L. Bates. [49] Nietzsche's parents, Carl Ludwig Nietzsche (1813–1849), a Lutheran pastor and former teacher; and Franziska Nietzsche (née Oehler) (1826–1897), married in 1843, the year before their son's birth. What happened remains unknown, but an often-repeated tale from shortly after his death states that Nietzsche witnessed the flogging of a horse at the other end of the Piazza Carlo Alberto, ran to the horse, threw his arms around its neck to protect it, then collapsed to the ground. Life turns away from itself as there is nothing of value to be found in the world. I am proud to present this collection gathered from various sources. Academic records from one of the schools attended by Nietzsche noted that he excelled in Christian theology. Nietzsche had already met Richard Wagner in Leipzig in 1868 and later Wagner's wife, Cosima. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche translation in German - English Reverso dictionary, see also 'friedlich',Friedensrichter',Friesisch',Friedensbruch', examples, definition, conjugation He also quoted Mahler himself, and adds that he was influenced by Nietzsche's conception and affirmative approach to nature, which Mahler presented in his Third Symphony using Zarathustra's roundelay. His health improved and he spent the summer in high spirits. [183], In Beyond Good and Evil and On the Genealogy of Morality, Nietzsche's genealogical account of the development of modern moral systems occupies a central place. A basic element in Nietzsche's philosophical outlook is the "will to power" (der Wille zur Macht), which he maintained provides a basis for understanding human behavior—more so than competing explanations, such as the ones based on pressure for adaptation or survival. [158] According to Laurence Lampert, "the death of God must be followed by a long twilight of piety and nihilism (II. The complete works of Friedrich Nietzsche in English as PDF. "Nietzsche and Jung: The whole self in the union of opposites" (London and New York: Routledge, 2004), Magnus and Higgins, "Nietzsche's works and their themes", in, O'Flaherty, James C., Sellner, Timothy F., Helm, Robert M., "Studies in Nietzsche and the Classical Tradition" (, O'Flaherty, James C., Sellner, Timothy F., Helm, Robert M., "Studies in Nietzsche and the Judaeo-Christian Tradition" (University of North Carolina Press) 1985. [208][209] As such, according to Nietzsche, the drive for conservation appears as the major motivator of human or animal behavior only in exceptions, as the general condition of life is not one of a 'struggle for existence. Marburg: Tectum Verlag 2013. According to him, weak people rely on other people's love as a way of protecting themselves. [146] Reflecting on unrequited love, Nietzsche considered that "indispensable ... to the lover is his unrequited love, which he would at no price relinquish for a state of indifference. [331] Paul Ricœur called Nietzsche one of the masters of the "school of suspicion", alongside Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud. In 1873, Nietzsche began to accumulate notes that would be posthumously published as Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks. "Anti-Statism in German Literature, as Exemplified by the Work of John Henry Mackay. He spent his winters in the Italian cities of Genoa, Rapallo, and Turin and the French city of Nice. [104], On 6 January 1889, Burckhardt showed the letter he had received from Nietzsche to Overbeck. "[188] Just as "there is an order of rank between man and man", there is also an order of rank "between morality and morality. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'friedrich' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. On 3 January 1889, Nietzsche suffered a mental breakdown. [193] He condemned institutionalized Christianity for emphasizing a morality of pity (Mitleid), which assumes an inherent illness in society:[194], Christianity is called the religion of pity. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was born on October 15, 1844, in Röcken bei Lützen, a small village in Prussia (part of present-day Germany). This letter contains the following statement: Hence the ways of men part: if you wish to strive for peace of soul and pleasure, then believe; if you wish to be a devotee of truth, then inquire....[62]. Salomé reports that he asked her to marry him on three separate occasions and that she refused, though the reliability of her reports of events is questionable. The Interior Life of Friedrich Nietzsche", "Who knew? Through her published editions, Nietzsche's work became associated with fascism and Nazism;[46] 20th-century scholars contested this interpretation, and corrected editions of his writings were soon made available. How to say Friedrich nietzsche in English? (For example, Elisabeth removed aphorism 35 of The Antichrist, where Nietzsche rewrote a passage of the Bible.) [184] A favorite motto of Nietzsche, taken from Pindar, reads: "Become what you are. The death of God may lead beyond bare perspectivism to outright nihilism, the belief that nothing has any inherent importance and that life lacks purpose. "[140], Most scholars dispute Nietzsche's account of his family's origins. [165][166] For the audience of such drama, this tragedy allows them to sense what Nietzsche called the Primordial Unity, which revives Dionysian nature. Aber eine solche Abscheidung geibt es in Wirklichkeit nicht: die "natürlichen" Eigenschaften und die eigentlich "menschlich" genannten sind untrennbar verwachsen. Pity makes suffering contagious.[195]. Nietzsche remarked freely about the isolation he felt within the philological community and attempted unsuccessfully to transfer to a position in philosophy at Basel. He nonetheless was happy to continue with the plans for an academic commune. [222] With each repeat of events is the hope that some knowledge or awareness is gained to better the individual, hence "And thus it will happen one day that a man will be born again, just like me and a woman will be born, just like Mary—only that it is hoped to be that the head of this man may contain a little less foolishness...."[222]. "[iii], Deussen cited the episode of Cologne's brothel in February 1865 as instrumental to understand the philosopher's way of thinking, mostly about women. Nietzsche recognized this and maintained his solitude, though he often complained. He thought people should create their own facts about morality. Brandes, who had started to teach the philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard in the 1870s, wrote to Nietzsche asking him to read Kierkegaard, to which Nietzsche replied that he would come to Copenhagen and read Kierkegaard with him. Nietzsche called for exceptional people not to be ashamed in the face of a supposed morality-for-all, which he deems to be harmful to the flourishing of exceptional people. "Irgendwie, jedenfalls physiologisch. "[189] Nietzsche waged a philosophic war against the slave morality of Christianity in his "revaluation of all values" to bring about the victory of a new master morality that he called the "philosophy of the future" (Beyond Good and Evil is subtitled Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future).[190]. The complete works of Friedrich Nietzsche. His books remained largely unsold. Nietzsche saw his own writings as "completely buried and in this anti-Semitic dump" of Schmeitzner—associating the publisher with a movement that should be "utterly rejected with cold contempt by every sensible mind. [184] To be "good" was to be happy and to have the things related to happiness: wealth, strength, health, power, etc. Hulme", "Wallace Stevens' Harmonium – Collaborative Essays and Articles – Geneseo Wiki", "Book: Ницше Фридрих Вильгельм. ", Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks, Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche, Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist movements, Relationship between Friedrich Nietzsche and Max Stirner, https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Homer_and_Classical_Philology, "Shakespeare Contra Nietzsche by Andrew Lanham", "Der Philosoph Philipp Mainländer entdeckt das Nirwanaprinzip: Die Welt als Gottes Selbstmordprojekt", "Féré et Nietzsche : au sujet de la décadence", 'Madness' of Nietzsche was cancer not syphilis, Metaphors in and for the Sociology of Religion: Towards a Theory after Nietzsche, The Duality of Nietzsche's Theory of the Will to Power: The Psychological and Cosmological Aspects, "100 years after death, Nietzsche's popularity keeps growing", "Nietzsche's aesthetic critique of Darwin", "Ernst Schmeitzner (1851–1895). At the beginning of 1888, Brandes delivered in Copenhagen one of the first lectures on Nietzsche's philosophy. However he was not popular among all fascists. [187] On the other hand, Nietzsche called master morality "a higher order of values, the noble ones, those that say Yes to life, those that guarantee the future. [230], From Thus Spoke Zarathustra (Prologue, §§ 3–4):[231]. "[206] According to Nietzsche, it is only when nihilism is overcome that a culture can have a true foundation on which to thrive. He believed the press and mass culture led to conformity, brought about mediocrity, and the lack of intellectual progress was leading to the decline of the human species. [1987] 1988. [296], By World War I, Nietzsche had acquired a reputation as an inspiration for right-wing German militarism and leftist politics. It could seem that the overman, in being devoted to any values at all, would necessarily fail to create values that did not share some bit of asceticism. [173][174][175] Nietzsche rejected the idea of objective reality, arguing that knowledge is contingent and conditional, relative to various fluid perspectives or interests. Although most commentators regard his breakdown as unrelated to his philosophy, Georges Bataille dropped dark hints ("'Man incarnate' must also go mad")[111] and René Girard's postmortem psychoanalysis posits a worshipful rivalry with Richard Wagner. [16] Though never submitted, it was later published as a gratulationsschrift ('congratulatory publication') in Basel. [117] Poisoning by mercury, a treatment for syphilis at the time of Nietzsche's death,[118] has also been suggested. Although Nietzsche has famously been misrepresented as a predecessor to Nazism, he criticized anti-Semitism, pan-Germanism and, to a lesser extent, nationalism. [113][114] Leonard Sax suggested the slow growth of a right-sided retro-orbital meningioma as an explanation of Nietzsche's dementia;[115] Orth and Trimble postulated frontotemporal dementia[116] while other researchers have proposed a hereditary stroke disorder called CADASIL. These points of difference from Schopenhauer cover the whole philosophy of Nietzsche. Whitlock, G. 1996. [51][better source needed], In 1854, he began to attend Domgymnasium in Naumburg. He owed the awakening of his philosophical interest to reading Schopenhauer's The World as Will and Representation and later admitted that Schopenhauer was one of the few thinkers whom he respected, dedicating the essay "Schopenhauer as Educator" in the Untimely Meditations to him. [61] In June 1865, at the age of 20, Nietzsche wrote to his sister Elisabeth, who was deeply religious, a letter regarding his loss of faith. When he accepted his post at Basel, Nietzsche applied for annulment of his Prussian citizenship. He pointed out that what is common among different peoples is the act of esteeming, of creating values, even if the values are different from one person to the next. Her brother took … [85] Rée accepted the idea and suggested that they be joined by his friend Nietzsche. To comprehend eternal recurrence, and to not only come to peace with it but to embrace it, requires amor fati, "love of fate". Yet they offer other examples in which Nietzsche expressed his affections to women, including Wagner's wife Cosima Wagner. 19; III. [216] Other scholars disagree that Nietzsche considered the material world to be a form of the will to power: Nietzsche thoroughly criticized metaphysics, and by including the will to power in the material world, he would simply be setting up a new metaphysics. "[150][151], Köhler's views have not found wide acceptance among Nietzsche scholars and commentators. Between 1868 and 1870, he published two other studies on Diogenes Laertius: This is how R. B. Pippin describes Nietzsche's views in, Nietzsche comments in many notes about the matter being a hypothesis drawn from the metaphysics of substance. Bonn: Bouvier, 1985, 342. Dod, Elmar, "Der unheimlichste Gast. Die Philosophie des Nihilismus". Gaddis, P.H. [85] After discovering the situation, Nietzsche's sister Elisabeth became determined to get Nietzsche away from the "immoral woman". In his short time in the military, he experienced much and witnessed the traumatic effects of battle. [168] He notes that without the Apollonian, the Dionysian lacks the form and structure to make a coherent piece of art, and without the Dionysian, the Apollonian lacks the necessary vitality and passion. He argued that this fusion has not been achieved since the ancient Greek tragedians. ", Riley, T. A. In 1881, when France occupied Tunisia, he planned to travel to Tunis to view Europe from the outside but later abandoned that idea, probably for health reasons. In 1872, Nietzsche published his first book, The Birth of Tragedy. He was named after King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia, who turned 49 on the day of Nietzsche's birth (Nietzsche later dropped his middle name Wilhelm). In Ecce Homo Nietzsche called the establishment of moral systems based on a dichotomy of good and evil a "calamitous error",[196] and wished to initiate a re-evaluation of the values of the Christian world. Hitler and Benito Mussolini used the term "übermensch" to refer to the Aryan race. Sander L. Gilman, Begegnungen mit Nietzsche. "[257] While Nietzsche never mentions Max Stirner, the similarities in their ideas have prompted a minority of interpreters to suggest a relationship between the two. Salomé's mother took her to Rome when Salomé was 21. By denying the inherent inequality of people—in success, strength, beauty, and intelligence—slaves acquired a method of escape, namely by generating new values on the basis of rejecting master morality, which frustrated them. To the end of his life, Gast and Overbeck remained consistently faithful friends. [255][256] Nietzsche called Dostoyevsky "the only psychologist from whom I have anything to learn. Philosophiebibliographie: Friedrich Nietzsche – Zusätzliche Literaturhinweise zum Thema (Nähere bibliographische Angaben finden sich in den meisten der aufgeführten Bücher und Titel, siehe auch die Bibliographien bei den Weblinks.) Nehamas shows that this interpretation exists totally independently of physics and does not presuppose the truth of cosmology. On the basis of it, many commentators[202] regard Nietzsche as an atheist; others (such as Kaufmann) suggest that this statement reflects a more subtle understanding of divinity. [299] Nietzsche had a distinct appeal for many Zionist thinkers around the start of the 20th century, most notable being Ahad Ha'am,[300] Hillel Zeitlin,[301] Micha Josef Berdyczewski, A.D. Gordon[302] and Martin Buber, who went so far as to extoll Nietzsche as a "creator" and "emissary of life". Englische Übersetzung von Friedrich Nietzsche. Overbeck and Gast decided to withhold publishing The Antichrist and Ecce Homo because of their more radical content. [40], Nietzsche's writing spans philosophical polemics, poetry, cultural criticism, and fiction while displaying a fondness for aphorism and irony. He associated slave morality with the Jewish and Christian traditions, as it is born out of the ressentiment of slaves. He also found time to work on poems and musical compositions. And they also claim that Nietzsche directed his landlord to burn those notes in 1888 when he left Sils Maria. Adolf Hitler, the German Chancellor and leader of the Nazis in World War II, read Nietzsche's work. [152], Other scholars have argued that Köhler's sexuality-based interpretation is not helpful in understanding Nietzsche's philosophy. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist, and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.

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