Mothers of some species fast and nurse their young for a relatively short period of time while others take foraging trips at sea between nursing bouts. They kill their prey with their long tusks and eat their blubber and skin.  Blubber serves both to keep the animals warm and to provide energy and nourishment when they are fasting. The genera Phoca and Pusa could have arisen when a phocine lineage traveled from the Paratethys Sea to the Arctic Basin and subsequently went eastward. , When swimming, otariids rely on their fore-flippers for locomotion in a wing-like manner similar to penguins and sea turtles. , Pinnipeds can be found in facilities around the world, as their large size and playfulness make them popular attractions.  In 1971, a captive harbor seal named Hoover was trained to imitate human words, phrases and laughter. Most species are preyed on by the killer whale or orca. Their mystacial vibrissae have ten times the innervation of terrestrial mammals, allowing them to effectively detect vibrations in the water. Sea lions are distinguished by their rounder snouts and shorter, rougher pelage, while fur seals have more pointed snouts, longer fore-flippers and thicker fur coats that include an undercoat and guard hairs. This article uses it for all pinnipeds. Adopted as a pup by Harry Goodridge of Rockport, Maine, in 1961, Andre the harbor seal became a star of the New England coast for 25 years. , In 2013, Derek Kaloust and Anna Tillett wrote a children’s book about Hoover and the Swallows entitled Hoover the Talking Seal. Even some fully furred species (particularly sea lions) are less haired than most land mammals. Pinnipeds that breed on fast ice tend to cluster together more than those that breed on drift ice. Hunter, a leopard seal in The Penguins of Madagascar; Short Fuse, a harp seal in the Penguins of Madagascar; Sophie, a circus seal whom Dr. Dolittle befriends and helps escape back to the ocean, in Doctor Dolittle's Circus and also in Dr. Dolittle; Lou Seal: mascot for the San Francisco Giants Veins containing cool blood from the body extremities surround arteries, which contain warm blood received from the core of the body. There are 33 extant species of pinnipeds, and more than 50 extinct species have been described from fossils. Small intestine lengths range from 8 times (California sea lion) to 25 times (elephant seal) the body length. 712–18 in Perrin, Würsig and, Sandergen, F. E. (1970). , Unlike terrestrial mammals, such as rodents, pinnipeds do not move their vibrissae over an object when examining it but instead extend their moveable whiskers and keep them in the same position. , None of Hoover's six pups (daughters Joey, Amelia, and Trumpet and sons Lucifer, Cinder, and Spark) spoke, but his grandson Chacoda (or "Chucky") has shown an ability to be guided in his vocalizations. Salty the Seal. In August, they contacted the New England Aquarium, who agreed to accept Hoover at their facility. This and its lack of orbital roof allow it to protrude its eyes and see in both frontal and dorsal directions. 260–68 in Perrin, Würsig and, Mann, J. , Odobenidae consists of only one living member: the modern walrus. This term typically excludes the walrus in everyday English.  The elaborately cusped teeth of filter-feeding species, such as crabeater seals, allow them to remove water before they swallow their planktonic food. Here are 18 facts about Seals to help gain a better understanding of these fascinating creatures.  Phocids and walruses swim by moving their hind-flippers and lower body from side to side, while their fore-flippers are mainly used for steering.  Otariids consist of two types: sea lions and fur seals. , Commercial sealing was historically just as important an industry as whaling.  In some species, including elephant seals and grey seals, males will try to lay claim to the desired females and defend them from rivals. Besides hunting, pinnipeds also face threats from accidental trapping, marine pollution, and conflicts with local people.  The fossil monachine Monotherium and phocine Leptophoca were found in southeastern North America. The use of firearms in seal hunting during the modern era drastically increased the number of killings. Male pinniped strategies for reproductive success vary between defending females, defending territories that attract females and performing ritual displays or lek mating. The Callorhinus lineage split earlier at 16 mya. To keep their blood pressure stable, phocids have an elastic aorta that dissipates some of the energy of each heartbeat.  The age at which a pinniped sexually matures can vary from 2–12 years depending on the species.  Similar calls have been recorded in other lobodontine seals and in bearded seals. In some phocid species, like the harbor seal, Weddell seal and bearded seal, the males have underwater territories called "maritories" near female haul-out areas. They have a layer of fat, or blubber, under the skin to keep warm in the cold water, and, other than the walrus, all species are covered in fur. , Pinnipeds can produce a number of vocalizations such as barks, grunts, rasps, rattles, growls, creaks, warbles, trills, chirps, chugs, clicks and whistles. , Several species of pinniped continue to be harvested.  Alice Swallow recalls in her book, Hoover the Seal and George: “If George was late in giving Hoover his breakfast [he] found his way up to the back steps … George would yell, “Hello, there.” George and Hoover were great friends.  Species that live in polar habitats are vulnerable to the effects of recent and ongoing climate change, particularly declines in sea ice. Like otariids, walruses are capable of turning their hind-flippers forward and can walk on land. Famous seal breeding ground destroyed by quake.  More than 50 fossil species have been described.  Similar conflicts have existed in South Africa with brown fur seals. Animal rights organizations traveled to Afghanistan to help the lion and other animals in the Kabul Zoo. Size of a southern male elephant seal is about 6 meters (20 feet) long, and weight up to 6000 kilograms (8,800 pounds). They will, however, break off mating to chase off a rival. Conservation status: Endangered; The Australian sea lion is a member of a group of animals known as the pinnipeds, which contains the seals, sea lions and walrus. In this publication, he traced the history of names, gave keys to families and genera, described North American species and provided synopses of species in other parts of the world. In one legend, seals, whales and other marine mammals were formed from her severed fingers. Aquarium staff continue to work with him. Detecting vibrations is useful when the animals are foraging and may add to or even replace vision, particularly in darkness. , After careful consideration, Swallow finally decided to take the seal pup home with him. They are known to approach humans and even swim alongside scuba divers. Hoover died on July 25, 1985, due to complications during his annual molt. The prey usually escapes, and seals are often seen with shark-inflicted wounds. When moving in water, the walrus relies on its hind-flippers for locomotion, while its fore-flippers are used for steering. They also state that the tricks performed for audiences are "exaggerated variations of their natural behaviors" and distract the people from the animal's unnatural environment.  Gestation in seals (including delayed implantation) typically lasts a year. The last recorded individual was a juvenile in 1974. The man has a horned headdress and is surrounded by animals. , Pinnipeds have two pairs of flippers on the front and back, the fore-flippers and hind-flippers. , Pinnipeds have well-developed tactile senses. Increased body weight in males increases the length of time they can fast due to the ample energy reserves stored in the blubber.  These males cluster around females and try to attract them with elaborate courtship displays and vocalizations. Northern elephant seals commonly dive 350–650 m (1,150–2,130 ft) for as long as 20 minutes.  Fore-flipper movement is not continuous, and the animal glides between each stroke. There are majorly five seals that live in the waters encompassing Antarctica: panther, crabeater, Weddell, Southern Fur, and the southern elephant. These are important for detecting their prey on the muddy sea floor. An exception to this is the walrus, where females form dense aggregations perhaps due to their patchy food sources. High levels of organic chemicals accumulate in these animals since they are near the top of food chains and have large reserves of blubber. , The Swallows kept him in their bathtub, but this proved too inconvenient within a few days. Featured Famous Dog With a SEAL Team Inspired Name Sonny When you think you’ve found the perfect SEAL Team inspired dog name for your dog, you may then wonder whether other dogs or characters could have the same name and whether it might not work at all.  Harbor seals have been observed following varying paths of another seal that swam ahead several minutes before, similar to a dog following a scent trail, and even to discriminate the species and the size of the fish responsible for the trail.  Lactation in otariids may last 6–11 months; in the Galápagos fur seal it can last as long as 3 years. Other species protected are southern elephant seals, Ross seals and Antarctic fur seals. Common Name(s): Seals, fur seals, sea lions; Basic Animal Group: Mammal; Size: Range from 4–13 feet long; Weight: Range between 85–4,000 pounds; Lifespan: 30 years; Diet: Carnivore; Habitat: Polar, temperate, and tropical seas; Population: Unknown, but in the hundreds of millions; Conservation Status: Tropical seals and sea lions have suffered the most from human and climatic … Alloparenting occurs in these fasting species; while most northern elephant seal mothers nurse their own pups and reject nursings from alien pups, some do accept alien pups with their own.  A closer relative of extant pinnipeds was Pteronarctos, which lived in Oregon 19–15 mya. In lobodontine seals, females are slightly longer than males. The seals were easy targets for organized sealers, fishermen, turtle hunters and buccaneers because they evolved with little pressure from terrestrial predators and were thus "genetically tame". , In Series 4 Episode 11 of the British comedy panel game show QI (Quite Interesting), host Stephen Fry asked a question regarding "Hoover the talking seal”. , Pinnipeds can move around on land, though not as well as terrestrial animals.  Species that breed on land are usually polygynous, as females gather in large aggregations and males are able to mate with them as well as defend them from rivals. When Swallow arrived, the two searched for the mother seal and later found her dead among the rocks. Otariids have visible external ears, while phocids and walruses lack these. The supraspinatous fossas are divided by a "secondary spine" and the bronchi are divided anteriorly. But, if you want to name a seal you meet, here are our recommended seal names for you. In addition, since ice is less stable than solid land, breeding sites change location each year, and males are unable to predict where females will stay during the breeding season. Seals produce a number of vocalizations, notably the barks of California sea lions, the gong-like calls of walruses and the complex songs of Weddell seals. Delayed implantation postpones the birth of young until the female hauls-out on land or until conditions for birthing are favorable.  Young pinnipeds typically learn to swim on their own and some species can even swim at birth. The vibrissa's angle relative to the flow, not the shape, however, seems to be the most important factor. The genera Valenictus and Odobenus developed elongated tusks. Terrestrial locomotion is easier for phocids on ice, as they can sled along.  As with other diving mammals, pinnipeds have high amounts of hemoglobin and myoglobin stored in their blood and muscles. They can run faster than you even though it is one of the largest bears we have.  Seals have been kept in captivity since at least Ancient Rome and their trainability was noticed by Pliny the Elder. The deep split between the lineages of Erignathus and Cystophora 17 Mya suggests that the phocines migrated eastward and northward from the North Atlantic.  During deep dives, any remaining air in their bodies is stored in the bronchioles and trachea, which prevents them from experiencing decompression sickness, oxygen toxicity and nitrogen narcosis. By comparison, terrestrial locomotion by phocids is more cumbersome.  Walruses have the most vibrissae, at 600–700 individual hairs.  Walruses are unique in that mothers nurse their young at sea. The anthropologist, A. Asbjørn Jøn, has analysed beliefs of the Celts of Orkney and Hebrides who believed in selkies—seals that could change into humans and walk on land. Pinnipeds (pronounced /ˈpɪnɪˌpɛdz/), commonly known as seals,[a] are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals. Several species are known to migrate vast distances, particularly in response to extreme environmental changes, like El Niño or changes in ice cover. In water, true seals swim by moving their hind-flippers and lower body from side to side. One of the most famous Arctic animals is the Polar Bears.  Pinnipeds split from other caniforms 50 million years ago (mya) during the Eocene. , Male pinnipeds generally play little role in raising the young. 861–66 in Perrin, Würsig and, Berta, A.  Traveling seals may use various features of their environment to reach their destination including geomagnetic fields, water and wind currents, the position of the sun and moon and the taste and temperature of the water.  Conversely, the Mediterranean monk seal was extirpated from much of its former range, which stretched from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea and northwest Africa, and only remains in the northeastern Mediterranean and some parts of northwest Africa. , A harbor seal who could imitate human voice, "The evolution of speech: a comparative review", British Comedy Guide: "Hoover the Talking Seal", The Web's Largest Resource for Famous Quotes & Sayings: QI, Series Four Script, QI - Hoover the talking seal S04E11 "Denial and Deprivation", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hoover_(seal)&oldid=1013888001, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 March 2021, at 00:31.  Arctic seals use more breathing holes per individual, appear more restless when hauled out, and rarely defecate on the ice. Article from stuff.co.nz. Pinnipeds have well-developed senses—their eyesight and hearing are adapted for both air and water, and they have an advanced tactile system in their whiskers or vibrissae. The northern elephant seal was hunted to near extinction in the late 19th century, with only a small population remaining on Guadalupe Island. 316–321 in Perrin, Würsig and, Weller, D. W. "Predation on marine mammals", pp. Let’s know about the Antarctic Animals in details here. Otariids use their front limbs primarily to propel themselves through the water, while phocids and walruses use their hind limbs. He was given a public ceremony and buried on the zoo grounds. Leopard seals typically target crabeater pups, which form an important part of their diet from November to January.  Only monk seals live in waters that are not typically cool or rich in nutrients. The Swallows spoke to the seal pup constantly. Navy officials say that the sea lions can do this in seconds, before the enemy realizes what happened. Dominant male elephant seals advertise their status and threaten rivals with "clap-threats" and loud drum-like calls that may be modified by the proboscis.  Male hooded seals use their inflatable nasal membranes to display to and attract females. Chris Cassidy. , As of 2021, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) recognizes 36 pinniped species. They are entirely absent from Indomalayan waters. One exception is the walrus, whose smaller eyes are located on the sides of its head.  The calls are described are "loud" and "bawling".  The underwater vocals of Weddell seals can last 70 seconds, which is long for a marine mammal call. They comprise the extant families Odobenidae (whose only living member is the walrus), Otariidae (the eared seals: sea lions and fur seals), and Phocidae (the earless seals, or true seals).  Pups may also vocalize when playing, in distress or when prodding their mothers to allow them to suckle.  Though they can drink seawater, pinnipeds get most of their fluid intake from the food they eat.  This is because it feeds on immobile bottom dwelling mollusks and hence does not need acute vision. Females usually live longer, as males tend to fight and often die before reaching maturity. Otariids establish territories containing resources that attract females, such as shade, tide pools or access to water. They state that the exhibits could not be large enough to house animals that have evolved to be migratory, and a pool could never replace the size and biodiversity of the ocean. 830–835 in Perrin, Würsig and, Reeves, R. "Hunting of marine mammals", pp. 923–931 in Perrin, Würsig and, Mesnick, S. L.; Ralls, K. "Mating systems", pp.  Flexible eye movement has been documented in seals. Even those that live in warm or tropical climates live in areas that become cold and nutrient rich due to current patterns.  The heart of a seal is moderately flattened to allow the lungs to deflate. These males commonly disrupt the copulations of their subordinates while they themselves can mount without inference.  Seals have a layer of subcutaneous fat known as blubber that is particularly thick in phocids and walruses. , Pinnipeds may dive during foraging or to avoid predators. 3. The polar bear is well adapted for hunting Arctic seals and walruses, particularly pups. The lineage of the modern walrus may have spread from the North Pacific to the Caribbean (via the Central American Seaway) 8–5 Mya and subsequently made it to the North Atlantic and returned to the North Pacific via the Arctic 1 mya. In between nursing bouts, the females leave their young onshore to forage at sea. Males of sexually dimorphic species also tend to have secondary sex characteristics, such as the prominent proboscis of elephant seals, the inflatable red nasal membrane of hooded seals and the thick necks and manes of otariids. These foraging trips may last anywhere between a day and two weeks, depending on the abundance of food and the distance of foraging sites. , California sea lions are used in military applications by the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, including detecting naval mines and enemy divers. Zoologist Georges Cuvier noted during the 19th century that wild seals show considerable fondness for humans and stated that they are second only to some monkeys among wild animals in their easily tamability.  Males defend their territorial boundaries with threatening vocalizations and postures, but physical fights are usually avoided. Some species use their fore-flippers to pull themselves forward.  Nevertheless, there is some dispute as to whether pinnipeds are more closely related to bears or musteloids, as some studies support the former theory and others the latter. Pinnipeds may move further inland and rest in sand dunes or vegetation, and may even climb cliffs.  The extraocular muscles of the walrus are well developed.  In some instances, only the largest males are able to reach the furthest deepest foraging grounds where they enjoy maximum energetic yields that are unavailable to smaller males and females. As such, they do not suffer snow blindness.  Compared to other carnivorans, their teeth tend to be fewer in number (especially incisors and back molars), are pointed and cone-shaped, and lack carnassials. It has since recolonized much of its historic range, but has a population bottleneck.  By holding their vibrissae steady, pinnipeds are able to maximize their detection ability. Andre the Seal was a big part of Harry Goodridge’s life for more than twenty-five years.  Elephant seal males establish dominance hierarchies with the highest ranking males—the alpha males—maintaining harems of as many as 30–100 females.  In 1989, Annalisa Berta and colleagues proposed the unranked clade Pinnipedimorpha to contain the fossil genus Enaliarctos and modern seals as a sister group. Seals are more agile and flexible, and some otariids, such as the California sea lion, are capable of bending their necks backwards far enough to reach their hind-flippers, allowing them to make dorsal turns. Most of them carry Rapiers at their side. The males arrive earlier in the season and wait for them. This list of fictional animals contains notable fictional animals of species that do not have a separate list among either the lists of fictional animals or the lists of fictional species. Females can usually move freely between territories and males are unable to coerce them, but in some species such as the northern fur seal, South American sea lion and Australian sea lion, males can successfully contain females in their territories and prevent them from leaving.  Alternative mating strategies also exist in young male grey seals, which do have some success. In addition to their streamlined bodies, they have smooth networks of muscle bundles in their skin that may increase laminar flow and make it easier for them to slip through water. , Pinnipeds spend many months at a time at sea, so they must sleep in the water. Lactating mothers can pass the toxins on to their young. , Pinnipeds have lifespans averaging 25–30 years. That’s VERY fast! Soon, however, the Swallows reluctantly decided they could not keep Hoover, due to his increasing growth and enormous fish intake. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism. The discovery of Puijila in a lake deposit suggests that pinniped evolution went through a freshwater transitional phase. Solitary foraging species usually exploit coastal waters, bays and rivers. Some calls have around seven rhythm patterns and are comparable to birdsongs and whalesongs. All fully furred species molt; phocids molt once a year, while otariids gradually molt all year. , Pinnipeds have a simple stomach that is similar in structure to terrestrial carnivores. As in modern seals, Pteroarctos had an orbital wall that was not limited by certain facial bones (like the jugal or lacrimal bone), but was mostly shaped by the maxilla.  The lobodontine lineage emerged around 9 mya and colonized the southern ocean in response to glaciation. Pups are born with only a thin layer of blubber, but some species compensate for this with thick lanugos.  In modern culture, pinnipeds are thought of as cute, playful and comical figures. "Distribution", pp.  Compared to terrestrial carnivorans, the fore-limbs of otariids are reduced in length, which gives the locomotor muscles at the shoulder and elbow joints greater mechanical advantage; the hind-flippers serve as stabilizers.  Pinnipedia was historically considered its own suborder under Carnivora.
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