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[364][365] Tewari states that Gandhi saw democracy as more than a system of government; it meant promoting both individuality and the self-discipline of the community. [198], For years after the assassination, states Markovits, "Gandhi's shadow loomed large over the political life of the new Indian Republic". [334] Gandhi began experiments with these, and in 1906 at age 37, although married and a father, he vowed to abstain from sexual relations. He became known as “Mahatma,” which means “great soul.”. "[228] 'I have said elsewhere that in moulding my inner life Tolstoy and Ruskin vied with Kavi. He writes: "It haunted me and I must have acted Harishchandra to myself times without number." [63] He was not allowed to sit with European passengers in the stagecoach and told to sit on the floor near the driver, then beaten when he refused; elsewhere he was kicked into a gutter for daring to walk near a house, in another instance thrown off a train at Pietermaritzburg after refusing to leave the first-class. [90], Gandhi took leadership of the Congress in 1920 and began escalating demands until on 26 January 1930 the Indian National Congress declared the independence of India. The place near Yamuna river where he was cremated is the Rāj Ghāt memorial in New Delhi. He bankrolled the LVS and was a captain of industry with his Thames Ironworks company employing more than 6,000 people in the East End of London. Gandhi favoured an education system with far greater emphasis on learning skills in practical and useful work, one that included physical, mental and spiritual studies. Full Name is Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi He was the Martyr of the Nation since 1948. Gandhi helped free the Indian people from British rule through nonviolent resistance, and is honoured by Indians as the father of the Indian Nation. Indira Gandhi (19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician. DOWNLOAD BIOGRAPHY'S MAHATMA GANDHI FACT CARD. [348] He accused Gandhi as someone who wished to retain the caste system. William Borman states that the key to his satyagraha is rooted in the Hindu Upanishadic texts. A Gandhian can mean either an individual who follows, or a specific philosophy which is attributed to, Gandhism. Another grandson, Kanu Ramdas Gandhi (the son of Gandhi's third son Ramdas), was found living in an old age home in Delhi despite having taught earlier in the United States. [446] Lelyveld, however, stated that the press coverage "grossly distort[s]" the overall message of the book. He immediately fled the courtroom after reimbursing his client for his legal fees. [305][306], Gandhi discussed the persecution of the Jews in Germany and the emigration of Jews from Europe to Palestine through his lens of Satyagraha. These ideas are evidenced in his pamphlets from the 1890s, in South Africa, where too he was popular among the Indian indentured workers. It was based on the biography by Louis Fischer. In 1888, 18-year-old Gandhi sailed for London, England, to study law. The government called on nutritional experts to demystify his action, and again no photos were allowed. [112][113][114], By the end of 1922 the Khilafat movement had collapsed. Weakened from repeated hunger strikes, Gandhi clung to his two grandnieces as they led him from his living quarters in New Delhi’s Birla House to a late-afternoon prayer meeting. [294] Gandhi accepted this and began having Muslim prayers read in Hindu temples to play his part, but was unable to get Hindu prayers read in mosques. His father was a diwan in Rajkot. [134], According to Atlury Murali, Indian Congress in the 1920s appealed to Andhra Pradesh peasants by creating Telugu language plays that combined Indian mythology and legends, linked them to Gandhi's ideas, and portrayed Gandhi as a messiah, a reincarnation of ancient and medieval Indian nationalist leaders and saints. He retained these traits when he arrived in London, but joined a public speaking practice group and overcame his shyness sufficiently to practise law. [185], Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru addressed his countrymen over the All-India Radio saying:[186], Friends and comrades, the light has gone out of our lives, and there is darkness everywhere, and I do not quite know what to tell you or how to say it. He wrote, "Vivisection in my opinion is the blackest of all the blackest crimes that man is at present committing against God and His fair creation. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, also known as Mahatma Gandhi, was a Hindu thinker, lawyer, and politician, born on October 2, 1869, ... India exports the raw cotton and Great Britain turns it into fabrics, thus giving work to the English working population. Mahatma Gandhi Biography: Mahatma Gandhi Actual name was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. The latter two claimed that it distorted what Gandhi actually said on a range of topics and falsely repudiated the Quit India movement. Their disagreement is the first known example of Gandhi challenging authority, despite his shyness and temperamental disinclination towards confrontation. Before this initiative of Gandhi, communal disputes and religious riots between Hindus and Muslims were common in British India, such as the riots of 1917–18. He went to England to study law. [124], The appeal of "Non-cooperation" grew, its social popularity drew participation from all strata of Indian society. [45], Writing many years later, Mohandas described with regret the lustful feelings he felt for his young bride, "even at school I used to think of her, and the thought of nightfall and our subsequent meeting was ever haunting me." He was also a highly accomplished sportsman who later founded the football club West Ham United. [137], Gandhi also campaigned hard going from one rural corner of the Indian subcontinent to another. [456], Gandhi's children and grandchildren live in India and other countries. [39], At age 9, Gandhi entered the local school in Rajkot, near his home. [389] For decades he edited several newspapers including Harijan in Gujarati, in Hindi and in the English language; Indian Opinion while in South Africa and, Young India, in English, and Navajivan, a Gujarati monthly, on his return to India. [344][345], In 1932, Gandhi began a new campaign to improve the lives of the untouchables, whom he began to call harijans, "the children of god". Biography of Mahatma Gandhi: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869 in Porbandar, India. [169], While the leaders of Congress languished in jail, the other parties supported the war and gained organizational strength. [267], Although Gandhi was not the originator of the principle of nonviolence, he was the first to apply it in the political field on a large scale. Gandhi was involved in the final negotiations, but Stanley Wolpert states the "plan to carve up British India was never approved of or accepted by Gandhi". Gandhi ignored this, and on 4 September, he sailed from Bombay to London, with his brother seeing him off. He went on to live in South Africa for 21 years. Gandhi's life and teachings inspired many who specifically referred to Gandhi as their mentor or who dedicated their lives to spreading Gandhi's ideas. That year, the committee chose not to award the peace prize stating that "there was no suitable living candidate" and later research shows that the possibility of awarding the prize posthumously to Gandhi was discussed and that the reference to no suitable living candidate was to Gandhi. The experiments began some time after the death of his wife in February 1944. [305] In 1938, Gandhi spoke in favour of Jewish claims, and in March 1946, he said to the Member of British Parliament Sidney Silverman, "if the Arabs have a claim to Palestine, the Jews have a prior claim", a position very different from his earlier stance. [137] Gandhi captured the imagination of the people of his heritage with his ideas about winning "hate with love". [79][80], Gandhi focused his attention on Indians while in South Africa. Manu stated that the experiment had no "ill effect" on her. For five months, the administration refused but finally in end-May 1918, the Government gave way on important provisions and relaxed the conditions of payment of revenue tax until the famine ended. On 5 May he was interned under a regulation dating from 1827 in anticipation of a protest that he had planned. [39] At age 11, he joined the High School in Rajkot, Alfred High School. In 1919, with India still under the firm control of the British, Gandhi had a political reawakening when the newly enacted Rowlatt Act authorized British authorities to imprison people suspected of sedition without trial. [391] This last essay can be considered his programme on economics. [189][190] They were tried in court at Delhi's Red Fort. However, the Muslim League demanded "Divide and Quit India". In 1885, Gandhi endured the passing of his father and shortly after that the death of his young baby. [408], In his early years, the former President of South Africa Nelson Mandela was a follower of the nonviolent resistance philosophy of Gandhi. [12][13] Among them was Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist, who assassinated Gandhi on 30 January 1948 by firing three bullets into his chest.[13]. Gandhi shared Hills views on the dangers of birth control, but defended Allinson's right to differ. "[352], In 1935, Ambedkar announced his intentions to leave Hinduism and join Buddhism. Further, believed Gandhi, in a free nation, victims exist only when they co-operate with their oppressor, and an economic and political system that offered increasing alternatives gave power of choice to the poorest man. Philosopher Martin Buber was highly critical of Gandhi's approach and in 1939 wrote an open letter to him on the subject. [385], While disagreeing with Nehru about the socialist economic model, Gandhi also critiqued capitalism that was driven by endless wants and a materialistic view of man. Ruskin inspired his decision to live an austere life on a commune, at first on the Phoenix Farm in Natal and then on the Tolstoy Farm just outside Johannesburg, South Africa. Mohandas Gandhi. The Gandhi–Irwin Pact was signed in March 1931. His father, Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi (1822–1885), served as the diwan (chief minister) of Porbandar state. [115] Turkey's Atatürk had ended the Caliphate, Khilafat movement ended, and Muslim support for Gandhi largely evaporated. Died: January 30, … However, he did not appreciate the bland vegetarian food offered by his landlady and was frequently hungry until he found one of London's few vegetarian restaurants. Over a million people joined the five-mile-long funeral procession that took over five hours to reach Raj Ghat from Birla house, where he was assassinated, and another million watched the procession pass by. [137][139], The government, represented by Lord Irwin, decided to negotiate with Gandhi. The peasantry was forced to grow Indigofera, a cash crop for Indigo dye whose demand had been declining over two decades, and were forced to sell their crops to the planters at a fixed price. His vision of a village-dominated economy was shunted aside during his lifetime as rural romanticism, and his call for a national ethos of personal austerity and nonviolence has proved antithetical to the goals of an aspiring economic and military power." In April 1945, Gandhi referenced being naked with several "women or girls" in a letter to Birla as part of the experiments. He was decorated for his courage at the Battle of Spion Kop. He was imprisoned for many years, upon many occasions, in both South Africa and India. He returned to Rajkot to make a modest living drafting petitions for litigants, but he was forced to stop when he ran afoul of a British officer Sam Sunny. Because lasting will only be the work of such statesmen who wake up and strengthen the moral power of their people through their example and educational works. "This is not the Swaraj I want", said Gandhi. [109][103][105], Gandhi expanded his nonviolent non-co-operation platform to include the swadeshi policy – the boycott of foreign-made goods, especially British goods. [224] Gandhi saw himself a disciple of Tolstoy, for they agreed regarding opposition to state authority and colonialism; both hated violence and preached non-resistance. He believed that the best economic system not only cared to lift the "poor, less skilled, of impoverished background" but also empowered to lift the "rich, highly skilled, of capital means and landlords". On 13 April 1919, people including women with children gathered in an Amritsar park, and a British officer named Reginald Dyer surrounded them and ordered his troops to fire on them. [449], "Mahatma Gandhi" is used by Cole Porter in his lyrics for the song You're the Top which is included in the 1934 musical Anything Goes. [82] In contrast, other Africa scholars state the evidence points to a rich history of co-operation and efforts by Gandhi and Indian people with nonwhite South Africans against persecution of Africans and the Apartheid. [280] But during Quit India movement even many staunch Gandhians used 'violent means'. [313][316], Gandhi believed that some life forms are more capable of suffering, and non-violence to him meant not having the intent as well as active efforts to minimise hurt, injury or suffering to all life forms. "[405] Anti-apartheid activist and former President of South Africa, Nelson Mandela, was inspired by Gandhi. By 1924, Atatürk had ended the Caliphate, the Khilafat Movement was over, and Muslim support for Gandhi had largely evaporated. [339] Nirmalkumar Bose, Gandhi's Bengali interpreter, for example, criticised Gandhi, not because Gandhi did anything wrong, but because Bose was concerned about the psychological effect on the women who participated in his experiments. [160][166], Gandhi's arrest lasted two years, as he was held in the Aga Khan Palace in Pune. It is an effort not to systematise wisdom but to transform society and is based on an undying faith in the goodness of human nature. British political leaders such as Lord Birkenhead and Winston Churchill announced opposition to "the appeasers of Gandhi", in their discussions with European diplomats who sympathised with Indian demands. "[404] King sometimes referred to Gandhi as "the little brown saint. After his assassination, he was memorialized by Martin Luther King Jr. Day. [321][322] He tried fresh and dry fruits (Fruitarianism), then just sun dried fruits, before resuming his prior vegetarian diet on advice of his doctor and concerns of his friends. People would spit on him as an expression of racial hate. For example, in 1935, N. A. Toothi stated that Gandhi was influenced by the reforms and teachings of the Swaminarayan tradition of Hinduism.

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